What Do Cattle Eat Understanding the Dietary Choices of Herds 7

Nutritional Aspects of Cattle Health

Normal blood plasma total Ca concentrations are 9–10 mg % and is tightly regulated.32 Calves, especially preweaned calves, absorb Ca very efficiently (90%). Older animals are less efficient in absorbing Ca, possibly due to reduced 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D receptors on the intestine which stimulate Ca uptake. Calcium absorption increases 160% from one day prior to calving until eight days later. The calcium requirement for lactating cows is variable, with a minimum of 0.61% of the diet (DM basis)19 but can be increased to 1% especially when feeding additional fat in the diet. Besides hypocalcemia, deficiency is rare with a bone deformity known as rickets and osteomalacia in older cows.

While it is common to feed once daily, more producers are now feeding at least twice daily. Because cows like consistency, the more a producer feeds, the more likely the cows will eat. They are organic compounds that can be divided into two categories, water-soluble and lipid soluble.

Magnesium is an intracellular cation required for many enzymatic reactions. Its concentration in plasma is around 0.85–1.0 mmol/L.32 In cows absorption of Mg primarily occurs in the forestomach, while in the small intestine in young calves. It is primarily absorbed passively, but also through a Na dependent active transport system. Forages have adequate Mg, but absorption requires Na so feeding Na is necessary for Mg uptake. The requirement of Mg is 0.2% of diet DM.19 Deficiency can occur when pastures and feeds contain high amounts of K.

What do animals eat

Whey does not form the clot and quickly dissociates for passage to the small intestine for further digestion and eventual absorption of amino acids, di and tri-peptides, and other nutrients. Assume the average weight of mature cows in your herd is 1,200 lb and that the cows are currently in late gestation. Using Appendix 2 (Breeding Cattle), find the section that lists nutrient requirements for the cows described. Note the cows should be gaining about 0.9 lb/d, expected DM intake is 22.3 lb and requirements are 1.7 lb/d (7.8%) for protein and 11.8 lb/d (52.9%) for TDN.

It is recommended that the practitioner utilize a ration balancing program to meet the described requirements and recommendations. This section will address the practical implementation of that information. The nutrient requirements of lactating Holstein cows are in Table 9.4
. The presence of the enzyme, renin, in the acidic environment of the abomasum in the preruminant Check this for Doeat.top Animal diet calf, results in casein forming a clot which is slowly degraded over the day.

What do animals eat

Often termed the ‘true stomach,’ the abomasum functions similarly to the human stomach. Here, acids and enzymes digest the microbial proteins from the rumen and any undigested feed, preparing them for absorption in the intestines. Overall, whether producers raise beef as grass-fed or grain-fed, the animals still spend the majority of their life grazing on pastures and their meat is an excellent nutritional source. To learn more about beef cattle feed management, have a look at Penn State Extension’s Feed Efficiency workshop. The workshop covers a variety of topics, such as identifying animals that can efficiently convert feed into marketable products.

The process typically involves heating colostrum for 60 min at 60°C. Net energy for gain (NEg) – the energy value of a feed used for body weight gain above that required for maintenance. Body Condition Scoring (BCS) is vital for assessing the energy reserves of your cattle. By regularly monitoring BCS, you can make timely adjustments to the diet to ensure optimum health and productivity. Leveraging tools like HerdX®’s HerdView® App® and HerdView® Insights can provide you with invaluable data and insights to make informed decisions regarding nutrition. These tools empower you to optimize feeding strategies, monitor the health of your herd, and adapt to changes in real-time.

It is very common to feed this vitamin to cows in free-stall management situations. Health disorders, and average daily gain of Brown Swiss calves receiving two or four liters of good quality colostrum and their milk yield as cowsa. Animals require absolute amounts of nutrients (pounds, ounces, milligrams, etc.), but when balancing rations it is convenient to look at that quantity as a percentage of the total amount.

A list of commonly used animal nutrition terms, along with a brief description of each, is included below. More in-depth explanations of these can be found in the OSU publications Beef Nutrition Workbook (Bohnert et al., 2004) and Understanding Forage Test Results (Ruddell et al., 2002). For the rumen to develop, it is essential that calves consume a highly palatable source of solid feed (calf starter grain).

What do animals eat

A large part of beef cattle production costs is dedicated to the purchase of (supplementary) feeds. Due to the high expenses, it’s important that producers utilize cattle feed in an optimal way. Feeding at the same time and milking at the same time will enhance performance in the herd. Decreasing time away from feed and water (reduced time in the holding areas) will enhance performance.

What do animals eat